The culture of an organization – this is the way of thinking and doing things.
Organizational culture reflects values, beliefs, expectations, written and unwritten rules, and the relationship between them.
Shows the accepted norms of behavior in the organization, which largely determine the behavior of people in it.
What is organizational culture?
Organizational culture is a multi-layered phenomenon and has three levels of manifestation:
The most superficial level of organizational culture reflects the written and unwritten rules and norms of behavior, both between employees and between employees and the management of the organization. Reference: “Establishing and spreading a people-and-business-oriented culture”, https://bvop.org/learn/peoplebusinessorientedculture/
At the outermost level are the visible characteristics of how things happen in the organization.
They show how the members of the organization interact with each other – what the office looks like and whether it creates comfort for the employees, symbols of belonging to the organization, way of dressing employees, etc.
At this level, the attitude of the organization to itself and its environment – style of correspondence, reputation, etc. is evident.
Level of values - this is the second, deeper level. Values are enduring beliefs that certain behaviors are better than others.
Example of organizational values
Examples of organizational values are customer care, teamwork, risk appetite, trust and support between members, job security, creativity, taking responsibility, rewarding results, and more.
In addition to the organizational values of culture, the values of the individual also influence – responsibility, perfectionism in work and others.
If there is a discrepancy in the values of the company and those of the employees, this is a sign of a problem in the company culture. Also, establishing a correspondence between the values of the individual and those of the organization is a key point in the selection of new employees. Reference: “Organizational structure: types and functions”, https://phron.org/organizational-structure-types-and-functions/
The third, deepest level is that of ideas and beliefs about what is right and wrong; for good and evil, etc.
These understandings have been formed in the process of human life, many of them are adopted by the family environment. These understandings are the most difficult to influence due to their deep roots in the individual’s consciousness.
Very often one does not even realize one’s deepest convictions. They usually manifest themselves in external provocation in the form of resistance, and it is a serious challenge for managers to manage these reactions.
Types of Organizational Culture
There are several types of organizational culture. The most important thing for the organizational culture should be of such a type that it fulfills its main goal – to help the company perform better than its competitors.
The presence of an appropriate organizational culture is like an “extra trump card up the sleeve” of the leader, ie. human resources become a real resource and help the manager to achieve the company’s goals through people, not despite them.
From this point of view, there are two types of organizational culture:
Constructive – when the values, expectations, beliefs shared by the members of the organization help to achieve the goals of the organization. Its characteristics are:
- Improving communication between members of the organization, encouraging spontaneous communication between members;
- It unites the employees around common ideas and values, builds standards of behavior, connects the personal goals of the employees with those of the organization;
- Regulates the behavior of members – directs the behavior of employees, individuals isolate unacceptable behavior;
- Maintains the social stability of the organization, makes employees feel part of a whole, of a community;
- Teamwork and joint achievement of goals are encouraged;
- Leadership is given priority over management.
- “Formation of the goals of the business organization”, https://www.businesspad.org/formation-of-the-goals-of-the-business-organization/
- “Goal-based management”, https://mpmu.org/goal-based-management/
- “The internal environment of the business organization”, https://managementeducationinc.wordpress.com/2021/07/14/the-internal-environment-of-the-business-organization/
- “The environment of the business organization and its impact”, https://businessprogrammanagement.wordpress.com/2021/07/14/the-environment-of-the-business-organization-and-its-impact/
- “A systematic approach in management”, https://securityinformationeventmanagement.com/systematic-approach-in-management/
- “Organizational and management structures”, https://pgov.org/organizational-and-management-structures/
- “Management and leadership theories and practices”, https://projectmanagement.wpdevcloud.com/management-and-leadership-theories-and-practices/
- “Manager vs leader: similarities and differences”, https://pm.mba/posts/manager-vs-leader/
- “Management approaches in the organizations for managers”, https://medfd.org/management-approaches-in-the-organizations-for-managers/
- “Knowledge and skills of the manager”, https://projectmanagement.news.blog/2021/07/09/knowledge-and-skills-of-the-manager/
- “The profession of the manager: How to become one”, https://scrumtime.org/profession-of-the-manager/
- “The Manager and the Leader as sources of motivation”, https://projectmanagement.freesite.host/the-manager-and-the-leader-as-sources-of-motivation/
- “Motivating the behavior of the manager”, https://agileprojectmanagement.home.blog/2021/07/10/motivating-the-behavior-of-the-manager/
- “Basic theories of leadership and management”, https://projectmanagement.jdevcloud.com/basic-theories-of-leadership-and-management/
- “Fundamentals of management and classification of management functions”, https://www.libraryofmu.org/fundamentals-of-management/
- “How to define the purpose and mission of the organization”, https://www.kosovatimes.net/define-purpose-and-mission-organization/
Constructive organizational culture
A constructive organizational culture builds stable values among employees. It shows them how important it is to be quality-oriented, to be flexible, not to be afraid of change, to be creative.
Destructive – Even if it is not destructive, an organizational culture that does not have the characteristics of a constructive one is at best static for the organization.
Static in the sense that it does not help the organization to move forward, to succeed.
The culture in the organization is not constructive when the rulers do not have the resources and will to change the culture in a positive direction and to use its effects.
To establish the real type of organizational culture, a complex analysis at several levels in the organization is needed.
For this purpose, a professionally developed methodology and experienced specialists are needed to analyze the obtained data.
To assess the level of organizational culture in an organization, the following questions should be answered:
- What are the values in an organization?
- What is most important to people, what drives them to be active, and what makes them passive?
- Will these values contribute to the goals they have set?
- Are the values in the organization in line with the requirements of the environment – (quality is increasingly valued; innovation, change, flexibility, entrepreneurship)?
- Are conflicts managed?
- Do people achieve the desired results?
- Do attempts to make a change in the organization fail or is it very difficult to make the change?
- Are there rumors and intrigues between employees?
- Does the manager have problems with people? What are they due to?
- At what level are decisions made in the organization? Can employees make decisions within their competence?
- How is employee performance assessed?
- Does how the remunerations are determined in the organization to stimulate the quality, the initiative of the employees?
- Is there a good level of communication in the organization?
- Are the expectations, needs, and attitudes of the employees known?
- What is the attitude of the management towards them?
- Are employees willing to cooperate?
- What is the management style of the leader – more task-oriented or people-oriented?